Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works within the theories of funds and credit score, in accordance with the specification of the analysis object, are characterised to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of totality of the economical relations fashioned within the means of formation, distribution and utilization of funds, as cash sources is broadly unfold. For instance, in “the overall concept of funds” there are two definitions of funds:

1) “…Funds mirror economical relations, formation of the funds of cash sources, within the means of distribution and redistribution of nationwide receipts in accordance with the distribution and utilization”. This definition is given comparatively to the circumstances of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations acquire common character;

2) “Funds signify the formation of centralized advert decentralized cash sources, economical relations comparatively with the distribution and utilization, which serve for achievement of the state capabilities and obligations and in addition provision of the circumstances of the widened additional manufacturing”. This definition is introduced with out displaying the surroundings of its motion. We share partly such rationalization of funds and suppose expedient to make some specification.

First, funds overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the nationwide earnings, although it’s a fundamental basis of funds. Additionally, formation and utilization of the depreciation fund which is the a part of monetary area, belongs to not the distribution and redistribution of the nationwide earnings (of newly fashioned worth throughout a yr), however to the distribution of already developed worth.

This newest first seems to be part of worth of primary industrial funds, later it’s moved to the associated fee value of a prepared product (that’s to the worth too) and after its realization, and it’s set the melancholy fund. Its supply is taken into consideration earlier than hand as a melancholy variety within the consistence of the prepared merchandise price value.

Second, primary objective of funds is way wider then “achievement of the state capabilities and obligations and provision of circumstances for the widened additional manufacturing”. Funds exist on the state degree and in addition on the manufactures and branches’ degree too, and in such circumstances, when essentially the most a part of the manufactures should not state.

V. M. Rodionova has a unique place about this topic: “actual formation of the monetary sources begins on the stage of distribution, when the worth is realized and concrete economical types of the realized worth are separated from the consistence of the revenue”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of funds, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial basis of funds. Although each of them give fairly substantiate dialogue of funds, as a system of formation, distribution and utilization of the funds of cash sources, that comes out of the next definition of the funds: “monetary money relations, which kinds within the means of distribution and redistribution of the partial worth of the nationwide wealth and whole social product, is said with the topics of the economic system and formation and utilization of the state money incomes and financial savings within the widened additional manufacturing, within the materials stimulation of the employees for satisfaction of the society social and different requests”.

Within the manuals of the political economic system we meet with the next definitions of funds:
“Funds of the socialistic state signify economical (money) relations, with the assistance of which, in the best way of deliberate distribution of the incomes and financial savings the funds of cash sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are fashioned for guaranteeing the expansion of the manufacturing, rising the fabric and cultural degree of the folks and for satisfying different common society requests”.
“The system of creation and utilization of mandatory funds of money sources for guarantying socialistic widened additional manufacturing signify precisely the funds of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, areas and separate citizen in accordance with the motion of money funds make monetary relations”.
As we have seen, definitions of funds made by financiers and political economists don’t differ enormously.
In each mentioned place there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon within the definition of funds;

2) the definition of funds, because the system of the creation and utilization of funds of money sources on the extent of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of funds as social product and the worth of nationwide earnings, definition of the distributions deliberate character, primary objectives of the economic system and economical relations, for servicing of which it’s used.

If refuse the preposition “socialistic” within the definition of funds, we might say, that it nonetheless retains actuality. We meet with such conventional definitions of funds, with out an adjective “socialistic”, within the trendy economical literature. We might give such an elucidation: “funds signify money sources of manufacturing and utilization, additionally money relations appeared within the means of distributing values of fashioned economical product and nationwide wealth for formation and additional manufacturing of the money incomes and financial savings of the economical topics and state, rewarding of the employees and satisfaction of the social requests”. on this elucidation of funds like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the normal inheritance, we meet with the widening of the monetary basis. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the worth of created economical product, additionally the partial distribution of the worth of nationwide wealth”. This newest could be very precise, comparatively to the method of privatization and the transition to privateness and is periodically utilized in follow in several international locations, for instance, Nice Britain and France.

“Funds – are money sources, monetary sources, their creation and motion, distribution and redistribution, utilization, additionally economical relations, that are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical topics, motion of money sources, cash circulation and utilization”.
“Funds are the system of economical relations, that are linked with agency creation, distribution and utilization of economic sources”.

We meet with completely innovational definitions of funds in Z. Physique and R. Merton’s foundation manuals. “Finance – it’s the science about how the folks lead spending `the deficit money sources and incomes within the particular time frame. The monetary selections are characterised by the bills and incomes that are 1) separated in time, and a couple of) as a rule, it’s not possible to take them into consideration beforehand neither by those that get selections nor some other particular person” . “Monetary concept consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learns systematically the topics of distribution of the money sources comparatively to the time issue; it additionally considers quantitative fashions, with the assistance of which the estimation, placing into follow and realization of the choice variants of each monetary selections happen” .

These fundamental conceptions and quantitative fashions are used at each degree of getting monetary selections, however within the newest definition of funds, we meet with the next doctrine of the monetary basis: primary perform of the funds is within the satisfaction of the folks’s requests; the topics of economical actions of any variety (corporations, additionally state organs of each degree) are directed in the direction of fulfilling this fundamental perform.

For the objectives of our monograph, you will need to evaluate well-known definitions about funds, credit score and funding, to resolve how and the way a lot it’s attainable to combine the funds, investments and credit score into the one whole half.

Some researcher factor that credit score is the consisting a part of funds, whether it is mentioned from the place of essence and class. The opposite, extra quite a few group proves, that a cheap class of credit score exists parallel to the economical class of funds, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit score’s existence within the consistence of funds.